1835~Last English Execution for Buggery: James Pratt and John Smith

Recently, English law was changed to support the marriage of those of the same sex. Therefore, I thought I would point out a situation when buggery was still considered a crime.

Hangin_outside_Newgate_Prison James Pratt (1805–1835) also known as John Pratt, and John Smith (1795-1835) were two London men who became the last two to be hanged for sodomy in England, in November 1835. Pratt and Smith were arrested in August of that year after being observed having sex in the room of another man, William Bonill.

Arrest
William Bonill, aged 68, had lived for 13 months in a rented room at a house near the Blackfriars Road, Southwark, London. His landlord later stated that Bonill had frequent male visitors, who generally came in pairs, and that his suspicions became aroused on the afternoon of 29 August 1835, when Pratt and Smith came to visit Bonill. The landlord climbed to an outside vantage point in the loft of a nearby stable building, where he could see through the window of Bonill’s room, before coming down to look into the room through the keyhole.

Both the landlord and his wife saw through the keyhole sexual intimacy between Pratt and Smith; he then broke open the door to confront them. Bonill was absent, but returned a few minutes later with a jug of ale. The landlord went to fetch a policeman and all three men were arrested.

Trial and Execution
Pratt, Smith and Bonill were tried on 26 September 1835 at the Central Criminal Court, before Baron Gurney, a judge who had the reputation of being independent and acute, but also harsh. Pratt and Smith were convicted under section 15 of the Offences against the Person Act 1828, which had replaced the 1533 Buggery Act, and were sentenced to death. William Bonill was convicted as an accessory and sentenced to 14 years of Penal transportation.

James Pratt was a groom, who lived with his wife and children at Deptford, London. A number of witnesses came forward to testify to his good character.

John Smith was from Southwark Christchurch and was described in court proceedings and newspaper reports as an unmarried labourer, although other sources stated he was married and worked as a servant. At the trial, no character witnesses came forward to testify on his behalf.

On 5 November 1835, Charles Dickens and the newspaper editor John Black visited Newgate Prison; Dickens wrote an account of this in Sketches by Boz and described seeing Pratt and Smith while they were being held there:

“The other two men were at the upper end of the room. One of them, who was imperfectly seen in the dim light, had his back towards us, and was stooping over the fire, with his right arm on the mantel-piece, and his head sunk upon it. The other was leaning on the sill of the farthest window. The light fell full upon him, and communicated to his pale, haggard face, and disordered hair, an appearance which, at that distance, was ghastly. His cheek rested upon his hand; and, with his face a little raised, and his eyes wildly staring before him, he seemed to be unconsciously intent on counting the chinks in the opposite wall.
—A Visit to Newgate

The jailer who was escorting Dickens confidently predicted to him the two would be executed and was proved correct. Seventeen individuals were sentenced to death at the September and October sessions of the Central Criminal Court for offenses that included burglary, robbery, and attempted murder. On 21 November, all were granted remission of their death sentences under the Royal Prerogative of Mercy with the exceptions of Pratt and Smith. This was despite an appeal for mercy submitted by the men’s wives that was heard by the Privy Council.

Pratt and Smith were hanged before Newgate Prison on the morning of 27 November, in front of a crowd that was larger than usual. The size of the crowd was possibly because this was the first execution to have taken place at Newgate in nearly two years. The event was sufficiently notable for a printed broadside to be published and sold. This described the men’s trial and execution and included the purported text of a final letter that was claimed to have been written by John Smith to a friend.

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