Victorian Personality: William Hulton, Industrial Strategist or Hard Task Master?

prhulton William Hulton (23 October 1787 – 5 April 1864) was an English landowner and magistrate who lived at Hulton Park, in the historic county of Lancashire, England.

Hulton was the son of William Hulton and Jane (née Brooke). He was educated at Brasnenose College, Oxford. In 1808, he married his cousin Maria Ford with whom he had 13 children, 10 of whom survived to maturity.

In 1811 he was appointed High Sheriff of Lancashire. In this capacity he ordered the arrest of 12 men, Luddites, for arson at Westhoughton Mill in Westhoughton town centre. Four of the offenders were hanged outside Lancaster Castle, including a boy aged 12. Hulton gained a reputation as being tough on crime and political dissent, and in 1819, he was made chairman of the Lancashire and Cheshire Magistrates, a body set up for dealing with the civil unrest endemic in the area.

In 1819 he summoned the local Yeomanry to deal with a large crowd in St. Peter’s Field in Manchester, which had gathered to hear the political agitator Henry Hunt. The Yeomanry, on horseback with sabres drawn, forced its way through the crowd to break up the rally and allow Hunt to be arrested. Twelve people died from sabre and musket wounds or trampling and the event became known as the Peterloo Massacre. Hulton was vilified by the local population and was obliged to decline a safe parliamentary seat offered to him in 1820.

As the owner of Hulton Park, he derived income from the seven collieries working the coal measures under the park or nearby and in 1824 became chairman of the Bolton and Leigh Railway Company, which planned and built the first public railway in Lancashire. The line ran to the west of his estate from Bolton to the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in Leigh, enabling him to deliver his coal to market more cheaply. The line was connected to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in 1830 giving him and other local businessmen access to the Port of Liverpool.

Until 1831 Hulton paid his workers with tokens or vouchers that could only be redeemed in his company shop, a practice outlawed by the passing of the Truck Act of 1831. In 1843 Hulton paid his colliers the poorest wages in Lancashire. He remained opposed to permitting the right to free assembly and was vehemently opposed to miners congregating with the object of forming a union. He established the Hulton Colliery Company in 1858.

HisCrop2 Note! The Peterloo Massacre plays a central role in my Regency era novella, “His Irish Eve,” which is paired with “His American Heartsong” in His: Two Regency Novellas (available from all major booksellers).

Posted in British history, Great Britain, Living in the UK, political stance, real life tales, science, Victorian era | Tagged , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Publishing Options for Women During Jane Austen’s Time

200px-cassandraausten-janeaustenc-1810_hires Novels during the early Regency were geared toward the female reader; therefore, the door opened, if only a crack, for the female writer to step through. The female writers of the time assisted Jane Austen in several ways, among them the influence on her writing and building an audience for Austen’s early works.

The early female authors faced something that Austen did not. They faced public criticism, as women of the time, especially those of genteel birth, did not seek employment of any kind. Women were not to pursue fame and a career. They were discouraged by their husbands and families from publishing their works. Austen was fortunate to have a family who encouraged her writing, but even she published anonymously. Austen’s father, the Reverend Austen, even approached a publisher for Jane when she was but two and twenty. Later, Jane’s brother acted as her representative with the publisher under which she served.

Women of the period had limited means at their disposal under which they might see their works come to fruition:

(1) Publishing by subscription – Subscribers signed up to purchase a novel. When enough subscriptions were guaranteed, then the publisher released the book.

(2) Publishing by profit sharing – The publisher released the book at his expense. Copies were sold until a profit was made. Only then did the author received a fee for his work. If no profit was made, the author received nothing, but the pleasure of seeing her name in print.

(3) Publishing by selling the copyright – The author took a chance in selling her copyright to the publisher. She would receive a fee for the sale, but nothing beyond that. If the book made a profit, only the publisher benefited.

(4) Publishing on commission – For this venture, the author paid all the costs for the book’s publication. The publisher acted as the author’s distributor. In the sales, the publisher would earn a 10% fee from the profits. If the book saw no profits, the loss rested on the author’s shoulders alone. This was the method Jane Austen used for her releases. Jane Austen published her first book at the age of four and thirty.

First Edition title page of Austen’s “Sense and Sensibility,” published in 1811

Posted in British history, Great Britain, Industry News/Publishing, Jane Austen, Living in the Regency, Pride and Prejudice, Regency era, Regency personalities | Tagged , , , , | 5 Comments

Whipping Tom (or) Toms…With a Fetish for Lady’s Behinds

Whipping_Tom“Whipping Tom” was the nickname given to two sexual attackers in London and the nearby village of Hackney. Both would attack women walking alone and beat them on the buttocks.

While there is some evidence an earlier attacker in around 1672 was also nicknamed “Whipping Tom” and carried out similar attacks on women, the earliest recorded attacker of this nature was active in central London in 1681. The attacker would approach unaccompanied women in alleys and courtyards and spank them on the buttocks, before fleeing. The inability of the authorities to apprehend the offender caused complaints about the ineffectiveness of London’s constabulary, and prompted vigilante patrols in the affected areas. A local haberdasher and his accomplice were captured and tried for the attacks.

A second attacker nicknamed “Whipping Tom” was active in late 1712 in Hackney, then a rural village outside London. This attacker would approach lone women in the countryside, and beat them on the buttocks with a birch rod. Around 70 attacks were carried out before a local man named Thomas Wallis was captured and confessed to the attacks.

Earlier Whipping Toms
Although no record exists of any similar attacks prior to 1681 or of the nickname “Whipping Tom” existing prior to this date, a publication of 1681 mentions “the Generation of that Whipping Tom, that about Nine years since proved such an Enemy to the Milk-wenches Bums”, implying that a similar attacker with the same nickname had operated in around 1672.

Whipping Tom of 1681
His first Adventure, as near as we can learn, was on a Servant Maid in New-street, who being sent out to look for her Master, as she was turning a Corner, perceived a Tall black Man standing up against the wall, as if he had been making water, but she had not passed far, but with great speed and violence seized her, and in a trice, laying her cross his knee, took up her Linnen, and lay’d so hard up-on her Backside, as made her cry out most piteously for help, the which he no sooner perceiving to approach (as she declares) then he vanished.

Whipping Tom Brought to Light and Exposed to View
The Whipping Tom of 1681 was active in the warren of small courtyards between Fleet Street, Strand and Holborn. He would wait in the narrow and dimly lit alleys and courtyards. On seeing an unaccompanied woman, he would grab her, lift her dress, and slap her buttocks repeatedly before fleeing. He would sometimes accompany his attacks by shouting “Spanko!”.

He attacked a large number of women, and while he would often use his bare hand, he would occasionally use a rod. Some of his victims were left badly injured by the attacks. He would appear, carry out his attacks and vanish with such speed that some people attributed him with supernatural powers.

There was a great public outcry in response to the attacks, which prompted complaints about the ineffectiveness of London’s policing arrangements at the time. Women would carry “penknives, sharp bodkins, scissors and the like”, and male vigilantes would dress in women’s clothing and patrol the areas he was known to operate.

A haberdasher from Holborn and an accomplice were captured in late 1681 and tried for the attacks, although no record now exists of the trial or of their identities. In 1681, Whipping Tom Brought to Light and Exposed to View, an anonymously written book about the attacks, was released.

Whipping Tom of 1712
Between 10 October and 1 December 1712 a string of further attacks took place in fields near Hackney. This attacker, also nicknamed “Whipping Tom,” would approach lone women and beat them with “a Great Rodd of Birch.” Around 70 women were assaulted before a local man named Thomas Wallis was captured and confessed to the attacks.

According to Wallis, he was “resolved to be Revenged on all the women he could come at after that manner, for the sake of one Perjur’d Female, who had been Barbarously False to him.” He claimed his plan was to attack a hundred women before Christmas, cease the attacks during the Twelve Days of Christmas, then resume the attacks in the new year.

Posted in British history, legends and myths, Living in the UK, mystery | Tagged | Leave a comment

Do You Remember? The Three Stooges as Political Satirists

This is a poster for You Nazty Spy!. The poster art copyright is believed to belong to the distributor of the film, Columbia Pictures, the publisher of the film or the graphic artist. Further details: Original lobby for You Nazty Spy (1940).

This is a poster for You Nazty Spy!. The poster art copyright is believed to belong to the distributor of the film, Columbia Pictures, the publisher of the film or the graphic artist. Further details: Original lobby for You Nazty Spy (1940).

This is a poster for You Nazty Spy!. The poster art copyright is believed to belong to the distributor of the film, Columbia Pictures, the publisher of the film or the graphic artist. Further details: Original lobby for You Nazty Spy (1940).

In 1939 Jules White and Columbia Pictures created “You Nazty Spy,” the first satire of the Hitler regime. It debuted some nine months prior to Charlie Chaplin’s “The Great Dictator.” The Stooges made a total of eight comedies dealing with war themes.

You Nazty Spy! is the 44th short subject starring American slapstick comedy team The Three Stooges. The trio made a total of 190 shorts for Columbia Pictures between 1934 and 1959.

The Stooges, especially Moe Howard and Larry Fine, were quite active in the war efforts in America. They sold war bonds, and Moe even acted as an air-raid warden for his community in Beverly Hills. Moe and his brother Jerome (Curly)  were raised by European immigrants in a small Jewish community near Brooklyn, New York. Larry was also of Jewish extraction and was known to follow European events quite closely.

In 1922, the Stooges got their start as back-ups for Ted Healy, a popular vaudeville comedian. In the beginning, Moe and his brother Shemp assumed the role as the “shtick” of Healy’s jokes. Larry Fine joined the group in 1925; in 1932,  Shemp left the group, and Moe’s kid brother “Curly” assumed Shemp’s role.

Although extremely shy in real life, Curly was the most popular of the group. He was married four times. Jerome suffered a stroke in May 1946 and was forced for health reasons to leave the group. Shemp returned to the trio and remained part of the group until 1955. Joe Besser was the third member from 1955-1957. “Curly Joe” DeRita joined Larry and Moe in 1957 and spent 12 years with the group.

Plot of “You Nazty Spy”
In the fictional country of Moronica, three munitions manufacturers—Messrs. Ixnay (Richard Fiske), Ohnay (Dick Curtis) and Amscray (Don Beddoe)—decide their country is in need of a change. They decide to implement a dictatorship, oust the king, and go about finding someone stupid enough to be a figurehead leader. Ixnay volunteers the three wallpaper hangers  working in his dining room—the Stooges.

Ixnay presents Moe Hailstone, Curly Gallstone, and Larry Pebble with the offer to run Moronica. Moe is instituted as the leader (the Adolf Hitler role), with Curly as Field Marshal “Gallstone” — paralleled as Field Marshal “Herring” in this film’s 1941 sequel, I’ll Never Heil Again (both times as representations of Hermann Göring), and Larry as Minister of Propaganda Pebble (a representation of Joseph Goebbels). After his takeover, Hailstone proceeds to give a speech to the masses, cueing Larry to display signs reading “CHEERS,” “APPLAUSE,” and even “HISS.” Moe “bonks” Larry after Larry accidentally raises the cue card for “HISS” at the wrong time during one of Hailstone’s speeches. (In this scene Curly is clearly mimicking Benito Mussolini.)

However the daughter (Lorna Gray) of the overthrown king pays Hailstone a visit, going by the name Mattie Herring (a spoof of World War I spy Mata Hari). The Stooges suspect she is a spy afterwards and attempt to execute her. Then, Larry cuts a round table while a dancer arrives and tells them the delegates are here for the round table meeting. The meeting goes wrong when Curly knocks out the first two delegates. While Moe and Curly attempt again to attack the delegates with golf balls, Larry is beaten up by the delegates. Moe joins the fight as Curly knocks the delegates out and declares victory. Later, the king’s daughter gathers a huge mob to storm Hailstone’s palace. The trio quickly abdicate, and flee into a lion’s den. The lions inside spot the Stooges and chase them to their doom; the lions are seen leaving their secluded area wearing the trio’s clothes, with one burping.

The film takes direct stabs as Hitler’s Germany. For example, the Stooges are paper hangers, and Hitler supposedly had been employed as a wallpaper hanger prior to leading the Third Reich. There are also “hits” at the Nazis’ burning books, storm troopers, a swastika formed by two snakes, and “concentrated” camps.

Details of the Film: 

Directed by Jules White
Produced by Jules White
Written by Felix Adler and Clyde Bruckman
Starring Moe Howard, Larry Fine, Curly Howard, Richard Fiske, Lorna Gray, Dick Curtis, Don Beddoe, Floreine Dickson, Little Billy, John Tyrrell, Bert Young,
Joe Murphy, Eddie Laughton, and Al Thompson
Distributed by Columbia Pictures
Release date  January 19, 1940
Running time 17′ 59″


The film satirized the Nazis and the Third Reich and helped publicize the Nazi threat in a period when the United States was still neutral about World War II, and isolationist sentiment was prevalent among the public. During this period, isolationist senators such as Burton Wheeler and Gerald Nye objected to Hollywood films on grounds that they were anti-Nazi propaganda vehicles designed to mobilize the American public for war. According to the Internet Movie Database, You Nazty Spy! was the first Hollywood film to spoof Hitler. It was released nine months before the Charlie Chaplin film The Great Dictator, which began filming in September 1939. 215px-The_Great_Dictator

Filmmakers of the era were under pressure not to bring the events upon the European continent to the attention of the American public. This campaign was led by Senators Bennet Clark of Missouri and Gerald Nye from North Dakota. A Senate subcommittee probed “propaganda.” The Hays code discouraged or prohibited many types of political and satirical messages in films, requiring that the history and prominent people of other countries must be portrayed “fairly”; but short subjects may have been subject to less attention than were feature films.

Interesting Facts
**The title is supposedly a parody of comedian Joe Penner’s catchphrase “You Nasty Man!”
**Moe Howard became the first American actor to portray/imitate Adolf Hitler in this film.
**Both Moe Howard and Larry Fine cited You Nazty Spy! as their favorite Three Stooges short.
**You Nazty Spy! was followed by a sequel, I’ll Never Heil Again, in 1941. **Moronika would also appear in Dizzy Pilots.
**There is a historical pun when Larry says, “If I take Mickey Finlen, I better be rushin’.” Curly replies, “Then quit stallin’.” This is a reference to Finland, the Soviet Union, and Joseph Stalin, who was the leader of the Soviet Union.
**Larry Fine injured his leg shortly before filming and can be seen with a limp throughout the short. Fortunately, this was appropriate for his role as a parody of Joseph Goebbels, who walked with a limp due to a club foot.
**The names of the munitions manufacturers are Pig Latin for “Nix” (a slang term of that era), “No,” and “Scram,” which in turn were known by the audience as slang in their Pig-Latin form.
**The parody of the Nazi banner with two snakes in the form of a swastika says “Moronika for Morons” which is a play on the Nazi slogan “Deutschland den Deutschen” (Germany for Germans).
**The Stooges—all Ashkenazi Jews—occasionally worked a word or phrase of Yiddish into their dialogue. In particular here, the Stooges make several overt Jewish and Yiddish cultural references:
**The exclamation “Beblach!” used several times in the film is a Yiddish word meaning “beans.”
**”Shalom aleichem!”, literally “Peace unto you” is a standard Hebrew greeting meaning “hello, pleased to meet you,”
**Moe: “We’ll start a ‘Blintzkrieg’ (Blitzkrieg)”. Curly: “I just love blintzes especially with sour krieg.” This is a reference to the Ashkenazi Jewish dish blintzes with sour cream.
**In Moe’s imitation of a Hitler speech, he says “in pupik gehabt haben” (the semi-obscene “I’ve had it in the bellybutton” in Yiddish). These references to the Nazi leadership and Hitler speaking Yiddish were particularly ironic inside jokes for the Yiddish-speaking Jewish audience.
**In addition to the “Mata Hari” reference, the name of the female spy Mati Herring is a play on the Yiddish and German name of soused herring, matjeshering.
**When Mr. Ixnay informs the Stooges of how to overthrow Moronika’s monarchy, and suggests that the takeover of Moronika start with a “putsch,” it refers to the historical Beer Hall Putsch, the real-world Nazi party attempt at a power grab in the Weimar Republic of 1923. Curly’s humorous response to Mr Ixnay’s suggestion, to explain it to Moe and Larry, was that “You ‘putsch’ your beer down, and wait for the pretzels.”
**Curly “Gallstone”‘s red book of women’s addresses and phone numbers has the rather overt sexual references “Ruby Clutch” “oh, oh oh! G” (bra size) and the unread “Tessie oomph 2 69,” which were ignored by the censors. This was a key dig at the attempt to censor The Great Dictator then in production by Charlie Chaplin. (Curly was also noted in his personal life for being a womanizer.)
**Curly Gallstone says to Mati Herring when he takes her out to shoot her “Let’s go shoot the works.” Hermann Göring was known to be a morphine addict; this was a slang allusion to the intravenous injection of morphine.
**A colorized version of this film was released in 2004. It was part of the DVD collection entitled Stooged & Confoosed.
**You Nazty Spy was also the first Stooges’ short to bear a new opening title sequence, with the “Torch Lady” on the left-hand corner, standing on a pedestal where each step has printed out “Columbia,” “Short Subject” and “Presentation,” and the opening titles and credits are inside a box with rounded edges. This format will remain in effect through Booby Dupes, which was Stooges’ 84th short for Columbia. Healthywealthy

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Editing 101: Words Frequently Confused (Part 2)

images-1Most writers enjoy games that test their knowledge of word skills. Yet, knowing which word or phrase to choose can be a challenge even for those of us who consider ourselves “word” worshippers. Are you aware of the distinctions listed below?

Alumna refers to “one female graduate of an institution,” while alumnae refers to two or more females. Alumnus refers to one male, while alumni refers to both to two or more males or the collectively to all of a particular school’s student graduates (male and female).

Tortuous means “winding, twisting, full of curves,” while torturous refers to “extreme suffering.”

Dual means “two,” while duel refers to “a contest or battle.”

Canvas is a “strong, coarse material,” while canvass is a verb meaning “to survey people” upon their opinions of a product, politics, etc.

Lead can be used as a noun or an adjective to mean “a soft, heavy meta” or when used as a verb, adjective or noun to mean “to guide or to be in command of.” Led is the past tense of the verb “lead.”

Your is a possessive pronoun, while you’re is a contraction of “you are.”

Forbear mean “to refrain from” or “to hold back,” while forebear refers to an ancestor.

Adapt means “to adjust to a new situation,” while adopt is “to accept as one’s own.” Adept, meanwhile, means “skillful.”

Cannon is “a mounted weapon,” while canon is “a church law or rule, or a set of principles.”

Flounder means “to flail” or “to struggle helplessly with faltering or hesitant movements.” Founder means “to fail, to go lame or to sink.” (It can also refer to the person or organization that establishes something.)

Amount is an indefinite quantity, which cannot be counted (as in the amount of love); it is used with singular mass nouns. Use number with plural count nouns, consisting of a quantity or people or things that can be counted (as in the number of contestants).

Callous means “a lack of interest, tactlessness, or a hard attitude,” callus refers to “hardened skin caused by friction.”

Foreword refers to “the introductory remarks found before the text of a book.” Forward means “moving to a point ahead.”

words.1Adverse refers to “unfavorable,” while averse means “having a distaste for.”

Between is used for two people, places of things (between you and me). Among is used for three or more people, places, or things.

Take means “to carry” or “to lead away from someone or something (as in take this message to the governor), while bring means “to carry” or “to lead toward someone or something” (as in bring me that book).

Buses are “motorized vehicles,” while busses are “kisses.”

Cannot is one word, not two.

Troupe is “a company of actors,” while troop is used to refer to other groups (soldiers, scouts, etc.)

Indefinite means “not accurate, vague, or not precise,” while infinite means “without limits.”

Fewer is used for things that can be counted (as in fewer than a dozen children), while less is used for bulk or quantity (as in less than a ream of paper).

Use each other for two involved people, places, or things. Use one another for three or more.

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Regency Celebrity: Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, Provisional Lieutenant Governor and Commander of Upper Canadian Forces

220px-Isaac_Brock_portrait_1,_from_The_Story_of_Isaac_Brock_(1908)-2 Major-General Sir Isaac Brock KB (6 October 1769 – 13 October 1812) was a British Army officer and administrator. Brock is featured as a minor character in my Work in Progress, and so I have spent some time researching his efforts upon the American continent during the War of 1812.

Brock was assigned to Lower Canada in 1802. Despite facing desertions and near-mutinies, he commanded his regiment in Upper Canada (present-day Ontario) successfully for many years. He was promoted to major general and became responsible for defending Upper Canada against the United States. While many in Canada and Britain believed war could be averted, Brock began to ready the army and militia for what was to come. When the War of 1812 broke out, the populace was prepared, and quick victories at Fort Mackinac and Detroit defeated American invasion efforts.

Brock’s actions, particularly his success at Detroit, earned him a knighthood, membership in the Order of the Bath, accolades and the sobriquet “The Hero of Upper Canada.” His name is often linked with that of the Native American leader Tecumseh, although the two men collaborated in person only for a few days. Brock died at the Battle of Queenston Heights, which was nevertheless a British victory.

Early Life
Brock was born at St Peter Port on the Channel Island of Guernsey, the eighth son of John Brock (1729–1777), a midshipman in the Royal Navy, and Elizabeth de Lisle, daughter of Daniel de Lisle, then Lieutenant-Bailiff of Guernsey. The Brocks were an English family who had been established in Guernsey since the sixteenth century. Brock earned a reputation during his early education on Guernsey as an assiduous student, as well as an exceptional swimmer and boxer. At age ten, he was sent to school in Southampton, but spent one year in Rotterdam learning French.

Despite his lack of an extensive formal education, Brock appreciated its importance. It seems as an adult he often spent his leisure time sequestered in his room, reading books, in an attempt to improve his education. He read many works on military tactics and science, but he also read ancient history and other less immediately practical topics. At the time of his death he was in possession of a modest library of books, including works by Shakespeare, Voltaire, and Samuel Johnson.

He kept a reputation as an “unusually tall, robust” man throughout his life, with an adult height of about 6 ft 2 in (188 cm). Measurements taken from his uniform show at his death he had a waist size of 47 inches (120 cm) and the inside brim of his hat measured 24 inches (61 cm) in circumference. Though Brock was noted as a handsome man who enjoyed the company of women, he never married.

Military Service
Brock had a successful pre-war military career and a quick rise through the ranks, which many commented on at the time. Some credited luck and others skill in his rapid promotions, and it is fair to say Brock had substantial portions of both on his way to prominence. The fact his promotions occurred in a time of peace and Brock had no special political connections adds to how remarkable a rise it was.

Early Career
At the age of fifteen, Brock joined the 8th (The King’s) Regiment of Foot on 8 March 1785 with the rank of ensign, and was likely given responsibility for the regimental colours. His elder brother John was already an officer in the same regiment. As was usual at the time, Brock’s commission was purchased. On 16 January 1790, he bought the rank of lieutenant and later that year he raised his own company of men. As a result, he was promoted to captain (of an independent company of foot) on 27 January 1791 and transferred to the 49th (Hertfordshire) Regiment of Foot on 15 June 1791.

His nephew and biographer (Ferdinand Brock Tupper) asserts that shortly after joining the regiment, a professional dueller forced a match on him. As the one being challenged, Brock had his choice of terms, and so he insisted they fight with pistols. His friends were shocked as Brock was a large target and his opponent an expert shot. Brock, however, refused to change his mind. When the duellist arrived at the field, he asked Brock to decide how many paces they would take. Brock insisted the duel would take place not at the usual range, but at handkerchief distance (i.e., close range). The duellist declined and subsequently was forced to leave the regiment. This contributed to Brock’s popularity and reputation among his fellow officers, as this duellist had a formidable reputation and was reportedly regarded as a bully in the regiment. During his time with this regiment, Brock served in the Caribbean, where he fell ill with fever and nearly died, only recovering once he had returned to England in 1793.

Once back in Britain, he spent much of his time recruiting, and he was subsequently placed in charge of recruits on Jersey. He purchased his majority on 27 June 1795, and rejoined his regiment in 1796, when the rest of his men returned from the West Indies.

First Command
On 28 October 1797, Brock purchased the rank of lieutenant-colonel and became acting commanding officer of the regiment, assuming substantive command on 22 March 1798 with the retirement of Lieutenant Colonel Frederick Keppel. The rank was apparently bought cheaply; his predecessor from whom he purchased the rank was advised to sell up and leave the army rather than face a court martial and probable dismissal.

In 1799 the 49th was assigned to the Helder Expedition against the Batavian Republic (now known as the Netherlands), to be led by Sir Ralph Abercromby. During the troop landings, Brock saw his first combat on 10 September 1799 under the command of then-Major-General John Moore. Given that the 49th was in poor shape when Brock took command, they saw little of the actual combat. Likely Moore was sparing them and using more experienced troops to establish the beachhead.

Finally on 2 October the 49th was actively involved in heavy combat at the Battle of Alkmaar, where they acquitted themselves well only sustaining thirty-three fatalities. This was remarkable given the circumstances of the fight. The 49th had been ordered to proceed up the beaches of Egmont-op-Zee, a steep climb through sand dunes and poor terrain. The situation was exacerbated by harassment from French sharpshooters, who had excellent cover. After about six hours of heavy fighting, the attack was stopped about a mile (1.6 km) short of their objective. After an hour of close combat the French began to withdraw. Brock himself was injured in the fighting when he was hit by a spent musket ball in the throat. A neck cloth prevented a possibly fatal injury. In his own words, “I got knocked down shortly after the enemy began to retreat, but never quitted the field, and returned to my duty in less than half an hour.”

In 1801 while aboard the 74-gun HMS Ganges (commanded by Captain Thomas Fremantle, a personal friend of Brock’s), Brock was present at the Battle of Copenhagen, where it was intended that his troops would lead an assault on the forts at Copenhagen. Although the outcome of the battle made such an assault unnecessary, Brock observed first-hand the tactical brilliance of Lord Nelson. After the battle, along with Fremantle, he was among those who celebrated the victory with Nelson. In 1802, Brock and the 49th Foot were ordered to Canada.

Transfer to Canada
Brock arrived in Canada along with the rest of the 49th foot and was initially assigned to Montreal. Almost immediately, in 1804 he was faced with one of the primary problems in Canada: desertion. Seven soldiers stole a boat and fled across the border into the United States. Despite having no jurisdiction on American soil, Brock sent a party across the border in pursuit, and the men were captured.


Brock by Hamilton MacCarthy

Brock by Hamilton MacCarthy

A short time later, Brock received a report from Fort George that some of the garrison were planning to imprison the officers and flee to the U.S. Immediately he boarded the schooner that had brought the message and proceeded to Fort George, which was under the command of then-Lieutenant-Colonel Roger Hale Sheaffe. A hastily-assembled honour guard formed to greet Brock’s unexpected arrival. Alone on entering the fort, Brock ordered the sergeant of the guard to disarm and had him confined.

As it was the dinner hour, all the soldiers were in barracks. Brock ordered the drummers to call out the men and sent the first officer on the scene, Lieutenant Williams, to bring him a soldier suspected of being one of the mutiny’s ringleaders. Pinning the man with a sabre Williams took him into custody. The other suspected mutineers were also captured.

Brock sent the twelve mutineers and the seven deserters to Quebec for court martial. The mutineers had planned to jail all the officers (save Sheaffe, who was to be killed) and then cross the Niagara River into the U.S. at Queenston. Seven soldiers were subsequently executed by firing squad. The mutineers testified they were forced to such measures by the severity of Sheaffe and how, had they continued under Brock’s command, they would never have taken such action. Brock was evidently upset by the news the conspirators had been shot. In a botched execution, the firing squad discharged their weapons at too long a distance so the condemned men were not killed instantly.

Interestingly Brock’s younger brother John Savery Brock was compelled to retire from the Royal Navy after his involvement in a mutinous incident; he induced “his brother midshipmen of the fleet at Spithead to sign a round robin against their being subjected to the practice of mast-heading” for which “he was recommended privately to retire from the service.”

Pre-war Preparations
After a period of leave in England over winter 1805–6 and promotion to colonel on 29 October 1805, Brock returned to Canada to find himself temporarily in command of the entire British army there. By 1806 the United States was becoming increasingly hostile to the British Empire; relations between the two nations continued to deteriorate until war finally broke out in 1812. This hostility emerged from three sources: grievances at British violations of American sovereignty, restriction of American trade by Britain, and an American desire to gain territory by invading and annexing the poorly-defended British North American colonies.

American grievances included the impressment of American sailors by the Royal Navy, the blockade of French ports, and a belief the British were inciting American Indians to attack U.S. settlements on the western frontier. War hawks in the U.S. called for an invasion of Canada to punish the British Empire and to lessen the threat to American interests represented by the Native Americans.

At the same time the American states were becoming crowded, and there was a growing attitude—later described by the phrase Manifest Destiny—that the United States was destined to control all of the North American continent. American hawks assumed Canadian colonists would rise up and support the invading U.S. armies as liberators and, as Thomas Jefferson famously wrote, conquering Canada would be “a mere matter of marching.”

In response to this emerging threat Brock moved quickly to bolster Canadian defences. He strengthened the fortifications of Quebec by building walls and an elevated battery. Despite having little formal education, Brock succeeded in creating a formidable defensive position largely due to his reading, which included several volumes on the science of running and setting up artillery. He also rearranged and strengthened the Provincial Marine (responsible for transport on the lakes and rivers), which led to the development of a naval force capable of holding the Great Lakes. This was to be pivotal during the war. Nevertheless, Brock’s appropriation of civilian lands and labour for military use brought him into conflict with the civilian authorities led by Thomas Dunn.

In 1807, Brock was appointed brigadier general by Governor General Sir James Henry Craig, the new commander of Canadian forces. He was to take command of all forces in Upper Canada in 1810. During this time Brock continued to ask for a posting in Europe. In June 1811, he was promoted to Major General and in October of that year Lieutenant Governor Francis Gore left for England. Brock was sent to Upper Canada as Senior Officer Commander of the Troops and Senior Member of the [Executive] Council, putting him fully in charge of both the military and civil authority. He was usually referred to as President of the Council or Administrator of Upper Canada (never as Lieutenant Governor). When permission to leave for Europe finally came in early 1812, Brock declined the offer, seeing it as his duty to defend Canada in war against the United States.

As Upper Canada’s administrator, Brock made a series of changes designed to help Canada in the event of a war. He amended the militia act allowing the use of all available volunteers and ordered enhanced training of these raw recruits, despite opposition from the provincial legislature. Furthermore, he continued strengthening and reinforcing defences. Brock also began seeking out First Nations leaders such as the Shawnee chief Tecumseh to see if they would ally with him against the Americans in the event of war. Although the conventional wisdom of the day was Canada would fall quickly in the event of an invasion, Brock pursued these strategies to give the colony a fighting chance.

Meanwhile back in England Brock’s brother William faced financial difficulties, as the bank in which he was a senior partner failed. Isaac’s commissions had been purchased with a loan entered into the bank’s books by his brother, and the Brocks now faced a demand for payment. Isaac could not meet the £3000 debt, but made over the whole of his salary to another brother, Irving, to be used as Irving saw fit, either to pay the debt or the family’s other bills.

War of 1812
Early War and the Capture of Detroit

Governor General Sir George Prevost, whose approach to the war conflicted with Brock's

Governor General Sir George Prevost, whose approach to the war conflicted with Brock’s

The United States declared war on Britain on 18 June 1812. Brock’s preparations meant Canada was not unprepared for the war; however, Brock felt those preparations would not be enough to keep the colony secure. In Upper Canada, besides the militia, there was only one British infantry regiment, a detachment of veterans and a company of artillery. These had to be dispersed between several widely-separated posts. Brock did have one vital advantage in that the armed vessels of the Provincial Marine controlled the lakes and allowed him to move his reserves rapidly between threatened points.

With war apparently imminent, Brock had continually kept the commanders of his posts informed of all developments. When news of the outbreak of war reached him, he sent a canoe party under the noted trader and voyager William McKay to the British outpost at St. Joseph Island on Lake Huron, with orders which allowed the commander (Captain Charles Roberts) to stand on the defensive or attack the nearby American outpost at Fort Mackinac at his discretion. Roberts immediately launched an attack on Fort Mackinac with a scratch force of regulars, fur traders, and natives. On 17 July, the American garrison was taken by surprise (not being aware that war had been declared) and surrendered. This victory immediately encouraged many natives, who had hitherto been neutral or undecided, to give their active support to the British.

Despite this complete success, Brock felt he needed to go further. He was hampered in these efforts by Governor General George Prevost, who had replaced Craig in late 1811. Prevost’s orders from the government and his own inclinations were to place a strict emphasis on defence. Prevost kept the bulk of his forces in Lower Canada to protect Quebec and opposed any attack into American territory. Brock also considered he was handicapped by inertia and defeatism among the Legislature and other officials. He wrote to Prevost’s Adjutant General,

My situation is most critical, not from anything the enemy can do, but from the disposition of the people – The Population, believe me is essentially bad – A full belief possesses them that this Province must inevitably succumb – This Prepossession is fatal to every exertion – Legislators, Magistrates, Militia Officers, all, have imbibed the idea, and are so sluggish and indifferent in all their respective offices that the artful and active scoundrel is allowed to parade the Country without interruption, and commit all imaginable mischief… What a change an additional regiment would make in this part of the Province! Most of the people have lost all confidence – I however speak loud and look big.

On 12 July, an American army under William Hull had invaded Canada at Sandwich (later known as Windsor). The invasion was quickly halted, and Hull withdrew, but this gave Brock the excuse he needed to abandon Prevost’s orders. Having finally obtained limited support from the Legislature for his measures to defend the Province, Brock prorogued the Assembly and set out on 6 August with a small body of regulars and some volunteers from the York Militia (the “York Volunteers”) to reinforce the garrison at Amherstburg at the western end of Lake Erie, facing Hull’s position at Detroit. Travelling mainly by water in bad weather, Brock reached Amherstburg on 13 August.

Here, Brock met Tecumseh, and was immediately impressed. Brock also read American dispatches captured from Hull’s army and quickly judged Hull to be timid and afraid of the natives in particular and the American force to be demoralised and short of rations. Against the advice of the officers on the spot, Brock immediately prepared to launch an attack on Detroit. He later (3 September) wrote to his brothers,

Some say that nothing could be more desperate than the measure, but I answer that the state of the Province admitted of nothing but desperate remedies. I got possession of the letters my antagonist addressed to the Secretary at War, and also of the sentiments which hundreds of his army uttered to their friends. Confidence in the General was gone, and evident despondency prevailed throughout. I have succeeded beyond expectation. I crossed the river contrary to the opinion of Cols. Procter, St. George etc.; it is therefore no wonder that envy should attribute to good fortune what in justice to my own discernment, I must say, proceeded from a cool calculation of the pours and contres.

At this point, even with his Native American allies, Brock was outnumbered approximately two to one. Brock thus decided to use a series of tricks to intimidate Hull. He dressed his militia contingent in worn-out uniforms discarded by his regulars, making it appear (at a distance) as if his force consisted entirely of British regular infantry. Brock then laid siege to Fort Detroit, from established artillery positions across the river in Sandwich, and through a carefully crafted series of marches, made it appear he had far more natives with him than he actually did. He had Tecumseh’s forces cross in front of the fort several times (doubling back under cover), intimidating Hull with the show of a large, raucous, barely controlled group of natives. Finally, he sent Hull a letter demanding his surrender, in which he stated, in part, “It is far from my inclination to join in a war of extermination, but you must be aware that the numerous body of Indians who have attached themselves to my troops will be beyond my control the moment the contest commences.”

Brock then hammered the fort with cannon fire. On 16 August, the day after receiving Brock’s letter, Hull surrendered. Hull, elderly and without recent military experience, was terrified the civilian population of the fort, including his own daughter and grandson, would face torture at the hands of the natives.

The capture of Detroit and Hull’s army wounded American morale and eliminated the main American force in the area as a threat, while at the same time boosting morale among his own forces. It allowed Brock to take the American supplies at Detroit and use them for his own forces, particularly the ill-equipped militia. Had Brock lived longer, he would probably have been freed from financial worries, since under prize regulations a substantial part of the value of the captured military stores would accrue to him. Brock himself valued the captured ordnance supplies at £30,000. Finally, the victory secured the support of Tecumseh and the other chiefs in his confederation, who took it as both a sign of competence and a willingness to take action.

Tecumseh evidently trusted and respected Brock, reportedly saying, “This is a man” after meeting him for the first time. Although Brock’s correspondence indicates a certain amount of paternal condescension for the natives, he seems to have regarded Tecumseh himself very highly, calling him “the Wellington of the Indians,” and saying “a more sagacious or a more gallant warrior does not, I believe, exist.” In enlisting the help of Tecumseh, Brock made a number of commitments to the Shawnee. He promised to negotiate no peace treaty without addressing the Shawnee’s vision of an independent homeland. Although this was undoubtedly because Brock needed the help of Tecumseh, there is no evidence Brock negotiated in bad faith. Brock’s personal integrity and respect for native peoples has been well documented and suggest that if he had lived, he would have kept his word to the Shawnee.

The capture of Detroit led to British domination over most of Michigan Territory. Brock had planned to continue his campaign into the U.S., but he was thwarted by the negotiation of an armistice by Prevost with American Major General Henry Dearborn. This stalled Brock’s momentum and gave the Americans time to regroup and prepare for an invasion of Canada. Unable to predict the point of invasion, Brock frantically worked to prepare defences throughout Upper Canada.

Death at Battle of Queenston Heights
Meanwhile, American general Stephen Van Rensselaer III, a Federalist political appointee, in command of a sizable army near Lewiston, came under Presidential pressure to invade. Although Van Rensselaer had severe doubts about the quality of his troops, he had no choice but to attack. Making matters worse, Van Rensselaer was an inexperienced militia general, and thus not trusted by the majority of regular army troops. In the early morning of 13 October 1812, he attempted to cross the Niagara River, leading to the Battle of Queenston Heights.

Despite heavy fire from British artillery, the first wave of Americans (under Captain John E. Wool) managed to land, and then follow a fishermen’s path up to the heights. From this point, they attacked and routed the British artillery. Brock himself had arrived from nearby Fort George and moved up to the artillery battery to gain a better view only minutes before Wool attacked. He, his aides and the gunners were forced to beat a hasty retreat, leading their horses down the steep slope.

Fearing that the Americans, with the artillery out of the way, would move the rest of their troops across the river, Brock ordered an immediate attack on their position. True to his philosophy of never ordering men where he would not lead them, he personally led the charge on foot. Brock’s charge was made by Dennis’ and Williams’ two companies of the 49th and two companies of militia. The assault was halted by heavy fire and as he noticed unwounded men dropping to the rear, Brock shouted angrily that “This is the first time I have ever seen the 49th turn their backs! Surely the heroes of Egmont will not tarnish their record!”

At this rebuke, the ranks promptly closed up and were joined by two more companies of militia, those of Cameron and Heward. Brock saw that the militia supports were lagging behind at the foot of the hill and ordered one of his Provincial aides-de-camp, Lieutenant Colonel John Macdonell, to “Push on the York Volunteers” while he led his own party to the right, presumably intending to join his party with that of Williams’ detachment who were beginning to make progress on that flank.

Brock was struck in the wrist of his sword arm by a musket ball, but continued to press home the attack. His height and energetic gestures, together with his officer’s uniform and a gaudy sash given to him eight weeks earlier by Tecumseh after the Siege of Detroit, made him a conspicuous target for the unknown American who stepped forward from a thicket and fired at a range of barely fifty yards. The musketball struck Brock in the chest and he fell. His last words have been reported as “Push on, brave York Volunteers” (in reference to a group of the militia Brock favoured) or “Push on, don’t mind me” or Surgite! (Latin for “rise” or “push on”—now used as a motto by Brock University), and even “a request that his fall might not be noticed or prevent the advance of his brave troops, adding a wish, which could not be distinctly understood, that some token of remembrance should be transmitted to his sister.”

These accounts are considered unlikely, as it is also reported that Brock died almost immediately without speaking, and the hole in his uniform suggests that the bullet entered his heart. His body was carried from the field and secreted in a nearby house at the corner of Queenston Street and Partition Street, diagonally opposite that of Laura Secord.

Following the death of Brock, Lieutenant-Colonel John Macdonell became the senior officer present. Despite being a lawyer by trade and having little military experience, Macdonell led a second attempt to retake the redan. With Williams’ men of the 49th starting from the brush to the right of the line near the escarpment and Macdonell’s anchoring the left, the force of between 70 and 80 men (more than half of whom were militia) advanced toward the redan. Wool had been reinforced by more troops who had just made their way up the path to the top of the Heights, and Macdonell faced some four hundred troops. During the charge, it is reported that the 49th used “Revenge the General” as a battle cry.

Despite the disadvantage in numbers as well as attacking a fixed position, Williams’ and Macdonell’s small force was driving the opposing force to the edge of the gorge on which the redan was situated, and seemed on the verge of success before the Americans were able to regroup and stand firm. The momentum of the battle turned when a musket ball hit Macdonell’s mount (causing it to rear and twist around) and another shot hit him in the small of the back, causing him to fall from the horse.

He was removed from the battlefield and succumbed to his injuries early the next day. Captain Williams was laid low by a wound to the head, and Dennis by a severe wound to the thigh (although he continued to lead his detachment throughout the action). Carrying Macdonnell and the body of Brock, the British fell back through Queenston to Durham’s Farm a mile north near Vrooman’s Point.

In the afternoon, Sheaffe arrived on the battlefield with reinforcements and took command of the British forces. In sharp contrast to his predecessors’ direct attacks, Sheaffe took a more cautious approach. This ultimately proved successful, leading to a total victory over the Americans.

After the battle, Sheaffe and his staff decided to entrust the funeral arrangements to Captain John Glegg, who had served with Brock for many years. On 16 October, a funeral procession for Brock and Colonel Macdonell went from Government House to Fort George, with soldiers from the British Army, the colonial militia, and Indian tribes on either side of the route. The caskets were then lowered into a freshly dug grave at the northeast corner of Fort George. The British then fired a twenty-one gun salute in three salvos, in a gesture of respect. Later that day, the American garrison at Fort Niagara respectfully fired a similar salute. Over five thousand people attended the funeral, a remarkable number given the population of Upper Canada at that time.

A small cairn at the foot of the Niagara Escarpment marks the spot where Brock fell. In 1824, Brock’s and Macdonell’s remains were moved into Brock’s Monument, which overlooked the Queenston Heights. That original monument was bombed and heavily damaged in 1840 (reputedly by Irish-Canadian terrorist Benjamin Lett although a subsequent Assize failed to confirm this). It was replaced by a larger structure 185 feet (56 m) high, built at public expense that still stands.

Brock was finally buried inside the new Monument on 13 October 1853. An inscription reads: “Upper Canada has dedicated this monument to the memory of the late Major-General Isaac Brock, K.B. provisional lieutenant-governor and commander of the forces in the province whose remains are deposited in the vault beneath. Opposing the invading enemy he fell in action near these heights on 13 October 1812, in the forty-third year of his age. Revered and lamented by the people whom he governed and deplored by the sovereign to whose services his life had been devoted.”

On British Leadership

British military leadership, which had been decisive up to Brock’s death, suffered a blow with his loss. His direct successor, Major-General Sheaffe, although successful in his approach at Queenston Heights, was never able to live up to Brock’s reputation. He was criticised by many, including John Strachan, for his retreat at the Battle of York, and was shortly after recalled to England, where he continued a successful, if not brilliant, military career.

Brock’s successor at Detroit, however, fared much worse. Colonel Henry Procter faced an attack from a resurrected American Army of the Northwest under future President William Henry Harrison. Harrison set out to retake Detroit, but a detachment of his army was defeated at Frenchtown on 22 January 1813. Procter, displaying poor judgement, left the prisoners in the custody of his native allies, who proceeded to execute an indeterminate number of them.

Subsequent American victories allowed Harrison to attempt another invasion of Canada, which led to the Battle of the Thames on 5 October 1813. After a successful American charge, Procter’s forces turned and fled, leaving Tecumseh and his American Indian troops to fight alone. They fought on, eventually being defeated. Perhaps of more importance to the British, at this battle Tecumseh died, and their alliance with the American Indians effectively ended.

As for Governor General Prevost, who often clashed with Brock, he remained in command of all British forces until after the Battle of Plattsburgh in 1814. The battle was intended to be a joint naval/infantry attack, but Prevost did not commit his forces until after the naval battle had nearly ended. When he finally did attack, his forces proved unable to cross the Saranac River bridge, which was held by a small group of American regulars under the command of the recently promoted John E. Wool. Despite a heavy advantage in manpower, Prevost finally retreated upon hearing of the failure of the naval attack. For his failure at Plattsburgh, Prevost was recalled to England to face an inquiry, and a naval court martial determined the blame for the loss at Plattsburgh primarily rested with Prevost. Prevost’s health failed him, and he died in early 1816.

In Canada
Canadians regard Brock as one of their greatest military heroes. He was voted #28 on the television show The Greatest Canadian, despite not actually being a Canadian.

Although many Canadians have come to view Brock as one of their own, Brock never really felt at home in Canada. On the whole, he viewed the country as a backwater and earnestly wished to return to Europe to fight against Napoleon. Furthermore, Brock mistrusted the Canadian colonists, many of whom he suspected of being American sympathizers, and he was reluctant to arm them indiscriminately to help defend the colonies, instead favouring the expansion of volunteer forces, as well as the employment of British regulars and Tecumseh’s native fighters.

Since his death, several legends and myths about Brock have arisen. In 1908, the story of Brock’s betrothal to Sophia Shaw, the daughter of General Æneas Shaw, was first published. There is no supporting evidence for the claim, and most biographers consider it apocryphal. Another legend, that of Brock’s horse Alfred, was first published in 1859. The horse was supposedly shot and killed during the battle while being ridden by Macdonell, and it is commemorated in a monument erected in 1976 in Queenston near the cairn marking the spot where Brock fell. However, again there is little supporting evidence. The General’s horse “fully caparisoned, led by four Grooms” is listed as preceding the coffin at the General’s interment at Fort George.

In 1816, a series of private half-penny tokens were issued by an unknown company, which honoured Brock with the title “The Hero of Upper Canada.” Private copper tokens became common in Canada due to initial distrust of “army bills,” which were paper notes issued by Brock in response to a currency shortage caused by economic growth.

Brockville and Brock in Ontario, Brock in Saskatchewan, General Isaac Brock Parkway on Highway 405 and Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, are all named in tribute to Brock. Schools named in his honour include one in Winnipeg, and public schools in Toronto, Guelph, Hamilton, London, and Windsor, Ontario. An Ontario Historical Plaque was erected by the province to commemorate Major-General Sir Isaac Brock’s role in Ontario’s heritage.

In September 2012, the Royal Canadian Mint issued a .99999 pure gold coin with a face value of 350 dollars to honor the bicentenary of Brock’s death. The reverse design was taken from a half-penny token issued in 1816 as a memorial to Brock. In addition, there have been two 25¢ circulation coins that have been released, one with a coloured maple leaf and the other with a frosted picture of Brock.

The Bathurst Street Bridge has been referenced by the Friends of Fort York as Sir Isaac Brock Bridge.

In Britain
Although Brock’s achievements were overshadowed by larger-scale fighting in Europe, his death was still widely noted, particularly in Guernsey. In London, he is remembered at a memorial in St Paul’s Cathedral, paid for by £1575 voted by the House of Commons, which also granted pensions of £200 to each of his four surviving brothers. For his actions in the capture of Detroit, Brock was appointed a Knight Companion of the Order of the Bath (KB) on 10 October 1812, though he died at the Battle of Queenston Heights before news of his knighthood reached him. As a mark of esteem, the Prince Regent made special grant to allow the heraldic supporters that would have been incorporated into his coat of arms if he had lived to be incorporated into the arms of Brock’s father’s descendants, and on monuments raised in Brock’s memory. A British naval vessel named in his honour, HMS Sir Isaac Brock, was destroyed while under construction at the Battle of York. The Regimental Depot of the 49th of foot, (later the Royal Berkshire Regt),was established at Reading and named Brock Barracks in his memory. It survives as a Territorial Army Centre.

In Guernsey
Brock’s childhood home on High Street, St Peter Port, Guernsey still stands, and is marked with a memorial plaque. A memorial, paid for by Canada, is fitted into the side of the Town Church, the parish church of St Peter Port.

Brock University provides scholarships to Guernsey students who achieve sufficiently high grades. In 1969, the Guernsey Post Office issued postage stamps to commemorate his life and achievements.

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Victorian Celebrity: Edward Cardwell, 1st Viscount Cardwell, Secretary of State for War

200px-1stViscountCardwell Edward Cardwell, 1st Viscount Cardwell PC, PC (Ire), FRS (24 July 1813 – 15 February 1886) was a prominent British politician in the Peelite and Liberal parties during the middle of the 19th century. He is best remembered for his tenure as Secretary of State for War between 1868 and 1874 and the introduction of the Cardwell Reforms.

Background and Education
Cardwell was the son of John Henry Cardwell, of Liverpool, a merchant, and Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Birley. He was educated at Winchester and Balliol College, Oxford, from where he took a degree in 1835. He was called to the bar, Inner Temple, in 1838.

Political Career
Cardwell was employed in the Colonial Office in the late 1830s, and directly involved in drafting written instructions (sent to Sydney) to Capt Hobson RN, as to how to ‘treat with the natives’ (Maori) of New Zealand; thus he was indirectly involved in what would become the founding document of New Zealand, the Treaty of Waitangi, signed February 6, 1840.

Cardwell was elected Member of Parliament for Clitheroe in Lancashire in 1842. He became a follower and confidante of Sir Robert Peel, the Prime Minister, and held his first office under him as Financial Secretary to the Treasury between 1845 and 1846. When Peel split the Conservative Party in 1846 over the issue of repealing the Corn Laws, Cardwell followed Peel, and became a member of the Peelite faction. When the Peelites came to power in 1852, Cardwell was sworn of the Privy Council and made President of the Board of Trade by Lord Aberdeen, a position he held until 1855. In 1854 he passed the Cardwell Railway Act which stopped the cut-throat competition between Railway Companies which was acting to their and the railusers’ disadvantage.

During these years, Cardwell moved from seat to seat in Parliament. In 1847, he was elected as MP for Liverpool. In 1852, he lost elections for Liverpool and for Ayrshire, but won a seat at Oxford. In 1858, he was defeated for the Oxford seat, but a second election for the seat was held shortly after, which he won (beating William Makepeace Thackeray).

The Peelite faction disintegrated in the late 1850s, and Cardwell officially became a Liberal in 1859,[citation needed] joining Lord Palmerston’s cabinet as Chief Secretary for Ireland. Unhappy in that position, he moved two years later to another cabinet post, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. A second move within the cabinet came in 1864, when Cardwell became the Secretary of State for the Colonies, a position he kept until the Liberals were turned out of office in 1866.

When the Liberals returned to power under William Ewart Gladstone in the 1868 election, Cardwell reached the peak of his career, as Gladstone’s Secretary of State for War. During his six years in the post, in what became known as “Cardwell reforms,” Cardwell reorganized the British army, introduced professional standards for officers (including advancement by merit rather than purchase), and formed a home reserve force. After Gladstone’s defeat in the 1874 election, Cardwell was raised to the peerage as Viscount Cardwell, of Ellerbeck in the County Palatine of Lancaster. His ennoblement ended his active political career.

Army Reform
Liberal Prime Minister William E. Gladstone paid little attention to military affairs, but he was keen on efficiency. In 1870, he pushed through Parliament major changes in Army organization. Germany’s stunning triumph over France proved that the Prussian system of professional soldiers with up-to-date weapons was far superior to the traditional system of gentlemen-soldiers that Britain used. The reforms were not radical—they had been brewing for years, and Gladstone seized the moment to enact them. The goal was to centralize the power of the War Office, abolish purchase of officers’ commissions, and to create reserve forces stationed in Britain by establishing short terms of service for enlisted men.

Cardwell as Secretary of State for War (1868–1874) designed the reforms Gladstone supported in the name of efficiency and democracy. In 1868 he abolished flogging, raising the private soldier status to more like an honorable career. In 1870, Cardwell abolished “bounty money” for recruits, discharged known bad characters from the ranks. He pulled 20,000 soldiers out of self-governing colonies, like Canada, which learned they had to help defend themselves.

The most radical change, and one that required Gladstone’s political muscle, was to abolish the system of officers obtaining commissions and promotions by purchase, rather than by merit. The system meant the rich landholding families controlled all the middle and senior ranks in the army. Promotion depended on the family’s wealth, not the officer’s talents, and the middle class was shut out almost completely. British officers were expected to be gentlemen and sportsmen; there was no problem if they were entirely wanting in military knowledge or leadership skills.

From the Tory perspective it was essential to keep the officer corps the domain of gentlemen, and not a trade for professional experts. They warned the latter might menace the oligarchy and threaten a military coup; they preferred an inefficient army to an authoritarian state. The rise of Bismarck’s new Germany made this reactionary policy too dangerous for a great empire to risk. The bill, which would have compensated current owners for their cash investments, passed Commons in 1871, but was blocked by the House of Lords.

Gladstone then moved to drop the system without any reimbursements, forcing the Lords to backtrack and approve the original bill. Liberals rallied to Gladstone’s anti-elitism, pointing to the case of Lord Cardigan (1797–1868), who spent £40,000 for his commission and proved utterly incompetent in the Crimean war, where he ordered the disastrous “Charge of the Light Brigade” in 1854.

Cardwell was not powerful enough to install a general staff system; that change had to await the 20th century. He did rearrange the war department. He made the office of Secretary of State for War superior to the Army’s commander in Chief; the commander was His Royal Highness The Duke of Cambridge, the Queen’s first cousin, and an opponent of the reforms.

The surveyor-general of the ordnance, and the financial secretary became key department heads reporting to the Secretary. The militia was reformed as well and integrated into the Army. The term of enlistment was reduced to 6 years, so there was more turnover and a larger pool of trained reservists. The territorial system of recruiting for regiments was standardized and adjusted to the current population. Cardwell reduced the Army budget, yet increased its strength of the army by 25 battalions, 156 field guns, and abundant stores, while the reserves available for foreign service had been raised tenfold from 3,500 to 36,000 men.

Personal Life
Lord Cardwell married Annie, daughter of Charles Stuart Parker, in 1838. They had two children, Margaret and Paul. He died in Torquay, Devon, in February 1886, aged 72. Lady Cardwell only survived him by a year and died in February 1887. The town of Cardwell in Queensland, Australia, was named after Lord Cardwell, and the current branch of the Cardwells married into an Carinthian Austrian family.

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